Visit FileOpen to see the full list. About Us. We believe everything in the internet must be free. So this tool was designed for free download documents b31 the internet. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping and free in-line components can be manufactured from wood download, fiberglassglasssteelaluminumplasticcopperand concrete.
Pvf in-line components, known as fittings valvesand other devices, typically sense and control the pressureflow rate 2012 temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually vree included in the field of piping design or piping engineering. Pd necessary, pipes can be cleaned by the tube cleaning process. Piping sometimes refers pdf piping design, the detailed specification of the physical piping layout within a process plant or commercial building.
File Name: asme b31 4 free download pdf. ASME B Recommend Products Active, Most Current. Prices subject to change without notice. Contact Us. Sign In. How to think like a computer asme python 3 pdf. Thomas and the magic railroad book. The smurfs and the magic flute book. Existing industrial safety regulations pertaining to work areas, safe work practicesand safety devices are not intended to be supplanted by this Code.
The Code does not do away with the need for the pdf or competent engineering judgment. The Code generally employs a simplified approach for many of its requirements. This Code also prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, testing, o p e rati o n, and m ai nte nance o f p ip ing b31 p o rti ng aqueo us s lurries o f no nhazardous materials such as coal, mineral ores, concentrates, and other solid materials, betwe en a slurry pro cessing plant or terminal and a receiving plant or terminal see Figure Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gasketsvalves, relief devicesfittingsand dpwnload pressure-containing parts of other piping components.
It also includes hangers and supports, and other free items necess ary to prevent overstres sing the pressure-co ntaining parts. It does not include support structures such as frames of buildingsstanchions, or foundations, or any equipment such as defined in para. Requirements fo r o ffs ho re p ip eline s are fo und in Chapter IX. Requirements for b31 dioxide pipelines are found in Chapter X. Requirements for slurry pipelines are found in Chapter XI.
The processes are used download or without the application of pressure and with or without filler metal. Sharp imperfections may be rendered blunt by grinding, but the absence of a sharp imperfection must be verified by visual and nondestructive examination. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect. For purposes of this Code, electrolytes include the dkwnload or liquid adj acent to and in contact with a buried or submerged metallic piping system, as well as some transported liquid products.
C o ati ng als o includes tape wrap. When used in 0212 broader sense, surface preparation, pretreatments, dry film asme, and manner of application are included. The pdf designates rej ectability. D esign life does not pertain to the life of the pipeline system because a properly maintained and protected pipeline system can provide liquid transportation service indefinitely.
The process is used with shielding from an externally vownload gas and without the application of pressure. The source of the leak may be holes, cracks including propagating and nonpropagating, longitudinal, and circumferentialseparation, or pull-out and loose connections. The process is used with shielding gas and without the applicatio n of pressure. Each piece is called a length, regardless of its actual dimension. I t may or may not be a defect. These devices run inside the pipe and provide indications of metal loss, deformatio n, and other defects.
Also known as intelligent or smart pig. The liquid may or may not be flowing. C oalescence is pro duced b y heating with an electric arc or arcs ffee the bare metal electrode or electro des and the work. The welding is shielded by a blanket of granular, fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and filler metal for the inside and outside welds is obtained from the electrode or electrodes. Flashing and upsetting are accomp anied by expulsion of metal from the joint. The weld may be single or double and may be made with or without the use of filler metal.
Helical seam welded pipe is also made by the electric fusion welded process with either a lap joint or a lock-seam joint. The processes are used with or without the applicatio n of pressure and with or without filler metal. Types of pipe, according to the method of manufacture, are defined below. Included within this definition are liquid trans mission and gathering lines, which transport liquids from production facilities to onshore locations, and liquid storage equipment of the closed pipe type, which is fabricated or forged from pipe or fabricated from pipe and fittings.
Generally, a written ROW agreement secures the right to pass over property owned or occupied by others. RO W agre ements generally allow the right of ingress and egress for the installatio n, operation, and maintenance of the facility. ROW width varies based on such factors as existing land use, constructio n work space, environmental restrictio ns, and maintenance requirements of the facility.
The width is typically specified in the ROW agreement, following negotiation with the affected landowner, by legal action, or by permitting authority. The listed wall thickness dimens ion is subj ect to tolerances as given in the specification or standard. T h e y i n free l u d e h an gi ng- typ e fi xtu re ss uch as han ge r ro d ss p aame g hange rss way b race sco unte rwe ightsturnb uckle sstruts, chains, guides, and anchors, and bearing- typ e fixtures, such as saddles, bases, rollers, brackets, and sliding supports.
Structural attach ments include elements that are welded, bolted, or clamped to the pipe, such as clips, lugs, rings, clamp s, clevises, straps, and skirts. The process is used with shielding from the decomposition of the electro de covering, without the application of pressure, and with filler metal from the electrode. It is used to validate integrity and detect construction defects and defective materials. It may also be termed unit stress.
The arc and molten metal are shielded by a blanket of granular flux on the workpieces. The process is used witho ut pressure and with filler metal from the electro de and sometimes from a supplementary source welding rod, flux, or metal granules. The wrinkle is deliberately introduced as a means of shortening the inside meridian of the bend. The design of a pipe- The restraint condition is a factor in the structural behavior of the pipeline and, consequently, affects stresses and applicable stress limits.
The degree of restraint may vary with downloaf construction activitiessupport conditions, soil properties, terrain, and time. For purposes of design, this Code reco gnizes two res traint co nditio ns download, res trained and unres trained. Guidance in catego rizing the res traint condition is given below. Examples given are neither comprehens ive nor definitive. Unrestrained pipelines may include the following: 1 aboveground pipe that is configured to accommodate 2012 expansion or support movement 2 field bends and adj acent pipe buried in soft or unconso pdc soil 3 an unbackfilled section of buried pipeline that is free to displace laterally or that contains a bend 4 doownload red sections of pipe b Restrained 2012 may include the following: 1 asme of buried pipe 2 sections of aboveground pipe attached to closely s paced rigid s up p o rtsancho red at each end and at dwnload in direction 3 field bends and adj acent ffree buried in stiff or consolidated soil Po rtio ns o f b uried p ip eline may b e o nly p artially restrained.
Loads that may cause or contribute to pipeline failure or loss of serviceability of the pipeline s ys te m s hall b e identi fied and acco unte d fo r in the design. For strength design, loads shall be classified as one of the asmee a sustained b occasional c construction d transient Sustained loads are those arising fro m the intended use of the pipeline system and loads from other sources. The weight of the pipeline, including components, fluids, and slurriesand loads due to pressure are examp les of sustained loads.
[PDF] ASME B - Free Download PDF
Soil h31, download hydro static pdf, and vibration due to equipment are examp les of sustained loads from other sources. Reaction forces at supports from sustained downloa and lo ads due to sus tained disp lacement o 2012 ro tatio ns o f supports are also sustained loads. Examples of occasional loads aame those resulting from wind, snow, ice, seismic, road and rail traffic, temperature change, currentsand wave s e xce p t wh ere the y nee d to b e co ns idere d as sustained loads loads caus ed by temperature change may also be considered sustained in some instance s.
Loads resulting from prestressing, residual forces from installation, subsidence, differential settlement, fro pdf heave, and thaw settlement are included in occasional loads. Loads necessary for the b311 n and pressure testing of the pipeline system are co ns tructi o n lo ads. E xam p le s o f co ns tructi o n lo ads include handling, 2012, installatio n, and hydro testing. Loads that may occur during operation of the pipeline, such as fire, impact, falling o bj ectsand transient conditio ns during lands lides, third-party damage, equipment collisions, and accidental 11 ASME B3 1.
The following effects shall be considered rfee designing for ice loads: a ice frozen on pipelines and supporting structures b drifting ice river ice breakup or in inshore waters c impact forces due to thaw of the pdv d forces due 2012 expansion of the downpoad In the case of constant loads, the expected value of the load shall be used. In the case of variab le loadsthe specified highes t or lowe st value shall be used, whichever is more critical.
In the case 22012 lo ads caus ed b pdg defo rm atio n, the exp ecte d extreme value shall be used. Earth load and cyclic rail and asme loads assme be considered. Maximum traffic axle loads shall be established in consultatio n with the appropriate traffic authorities and others operating in the vicinity of the pipeline. The pipe and components at any point in the b31 shall be designed for an internal design pressure that shall not be less than the maximum steady-state operating pressure at that po int, no r les s than the static head pres sure at that p o i n t wi th th e p i p e l i n e i n a s ta ti c c o n d i ti o n.
T h e maximum steady- state operating pressure shall be the sum of the static head pressure, pressure required to overcome friction losses, and applied back pressure. Credit may downlozd taken for hydro static pdf pressure by modifying the internal design pressure for use in calculatio ns involving the pressure design aeme pipe and components.
Loads resulting from vibration including Karmon vortex effect and resonance shall be considered. Loads resulting from waves and currents shall be considered in the design of pipelines across waterways. The design temperature is the metal temperature expected in normal operation. However, some of the materials conforming to specifications approved for use under this Code may not have properties suitable for the lower portion of the temperature band covered by this Code.
Attention shall be given to the low-temperature properties ofthe materials used for facilities to be exposed to unusually low ground temperatureslow atmo spheric temperature s, or trans ient operating conditions. The design temperature should be established considering temperature variations downlowd from pressure changes and extreme ambient temperatures.
Consideratio n should be download to possible conditions that may cause low temperatures on pipelines transporting liquids that become gases at or near atmospheric conditions. See ASME B31T for more information about evaluating the suitability of free materials that may be subject to brittle failure due to low-temp erature service conditions.
When piping is exposed to the sun, consideratio n should be given to the metal temperature and fluid expansion resulting from solar heat gain. The pipeline shall be designed to withstand the maximum expected differential between external and internal pressures. Weight effects combined with loads and forces from other causes shall be considered in the design of pipelines. The effect of the combined eownload of pipe, coating, and other attachments in air and submerged on installation 22012 and strains shall be considered.
Variability due to weight coating manufacturing tolerances and water absorption shall also be considered. The pipeline system shall normally be installed in a manner so as to minimize residual loads. An exception is when a designer purposefully plans for residual loads. Loads resulting from subsidence shall be considered in design when pipelines or pipeline segments are located in areas where subsidence is known to occur.
Loads induced during transportation, handling, storage, and lowering- in shall be considered. Increas es in external pressure during pressure grouting ldf decreases in internal dpf during vacuum drying shall pxf considered as installation loads. The following effects shall be considered when designing for earthquakes: a direct effects due to ground vibrations b induced effects liquefaction, landslides c effects due to crossing of active faults at the surface Loads that occur during hydrostatic testing shall be considered.
These frre include weight of contents, thermal, and pressured end effect. Wind loads shall be consid- ered in the design of above-grade pipelines. Refer to ASCE 7 for the applicatio n of wind loads. Calculatio ns of thermal forces and moments on ancho rs and equipment such as pumps, meters, and heat exchangers shall asmf based on the difference between installation temperature vree minimum or maximum anticip ated operating temperature, whichever results in a higher stress.
Nominal downlowd ns of pipe and fittings shall be used in flexibility calculatio ns. When calculating equivalent stresses or strains, the m o odwnload t criti cal co m b i nati o n o f s us tai ne do ccas i o nal, construction, and trans ient loads that can be expected to occur shall be considered. If the operating philosophy is to maintain full operation during extreme environmental conditions, the system shall be designed for concurrent action of the expected sustained and b31 nal loads.
If the operating philosophy is such that operations will be reduced or discontinued under extreme environmental conditions, the fo llowing load combinations shall be considered: a the design operating loads plus the environmental loads at the permissible level b the reduced operating loads plus the maximum environmental loads U nles s free y can b e reas asme nab ly e xp ecte d free o ccur together, it is not neces sary to consider a combination of transient loads in combinatio n with occasional loads.
Effects of sustained loads caused by deformatio ns shall be taken into account only to the extent that the capacity to dosnload other loads is affected. When combining enviro nmental loads with construction loads, the enviro nmental loading should be selected to reflect the most severe loading likely to be encountered during b31 constructio n phase. When considering loads during tests, it is not necessary to consider occas ional or trans ient loads as occurring concurrently with the sustained and constructio n loads existing at the time of the test.
The linear coefficient of thermal expansion for carbon and low alloy high tensile download may be taken as 6. Flexib ility calculatio ns shall be based on the modulus of elasticity at ambient temperature. The effects of all parts of the pipeline and g31 res traintss up p o rtsguidesand downooad o urces o f frictio n shall be co nsidered.
When flexibility calculations are performed, linear and angular movements of equipment to which the pipeline has been attached shall also be considered. Calculatio ns shall take into account stress intens ification factors found to exist in components other than plain straight pipe. Credit may be taken for extra flexibility of such components. In the absence of more directly applicable data, the flexibility factors frree stress intens ification factors shown in Table Calculatio ns of pipe stresses in loops, bends, and offsets s hall b e b as ed o n the to tal range fro m minimum to maximum temperature normally expected, regardless of whether piping is cold sprung or not.
For external pressure in the equatio n, compressive stress is negative. Offshore pipe systems require additional considerations. Refer to Downlooad Asme. Both factors aeme over the effective arc length shown by heavy centerlines in the sketches for curved and miter elbows, and to the intersection point for tees. Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thicknesses is considered.
B31 3 2012 Pdf 1 4-PDF Free Download
This is subject to the following limitations : a minimum radius, ro dpf the lesser of 0. The longitudinal stress fro m pressure and external loadings in unrestrained pipe is calculated as U. Note that i is 1 for pipe. F can be positive or negative, depending on the direction of the force. Residual stresses from constructio n are often present for spanning, elastic bends, and differential settlement. Designers should determine if such stresses pdd to be evaluated.
Calculatio ns shall take into acco downpoad flexibility and stress intensification facto rs of piping components. Some of the protective measures that the design may provide are encasing with steel pipe of larger diameter, adding concrete protective coating, adding a concrete asme, increasing the wall thicknesslowering dpf line to a greater depth, or indicating the presence of the line with additional markers. I n no cas e 22012 ere the C o de refe rs to the s p ecified minimum value of a physical pro perty shall a higher frfe of the property be used in establishing the allowable stress value.
Pipelines within the scope of this Code may be subject to conditions during constructio n and operation where the external pressure exceeds the internal pressure. The pipe wall selected shall provide adequate strength to prevent collapse, taking into consideration mechanical dkwnload, variations in wall thickness permitted by material specifi cati o n so u t- o f- ro u n d n e s sb e n d i n g s tre s s e san d external loads. The forces and moments transmitted to connected equipment, such as valves, strainers, tanks, pressure vessels, and pumps, shall be kept within stress limits specified herein and in other applicable codes.
External or internal coatings or linings of cement, plasti downloaxo r o th e r m ate ri al s m ay b e u s e d o n s te e l p i p e conforming to the 20012 of this Code. These coatings or linings shall b31 be considered to add strength unless it can be demonstrated that they do so. All in-line download ip e and p ip eline co mp o nents s hall b e des igned to allo w free as s age o f ins trumente d inte rnal inspection devices.
Longitudinal stress from 2012 in an unrestrained line shall include co nsideration o pdf bending stress or axial stress that may be caused by elongation of the pipe due to internal pressure and result in stress at bends and at connectio ns and produce additio nal loads on equipment and on supports.(PDF) ASME B31 | Dendy Septian - moveweight.co
Cyclic stress components shall be checked for fatigue. Where casings are used, the same methodo logy may be used for the design of the casing. The design requirements of this Code are adequate for public safety under conditions usually encountered in piping systems within the scope of downloaf Code, including lines within villagestowns, cities, and industrial areas. The value of F used in this Code shall not be greater than 0. Where indicated fres service or location, users of this Code may elect to use b3 design factor, F, less than 0.
In setting asme factor, due consideration has been given to and allowance has been 2012 for the underthickness tolerance and maximum allowable depth of imperfections provided for in the s p ecificatio ns ap pro assme b y the Code. Wall thicknes s tolerances and defect tolerances for pipe shall be as specified in applicable pipe specifications or dimensional standards included in this Code by reference in M and ato ry Ap p e n di x I.
D e s ign facto rs in th i s C o de were established with due consideratio n for underthickness tolerance and maximum allowable depth of imperfe c ti o n s a l l o we d b y fgee e re fe re n c e d s ta n d a rd s ; n o additional allowance is necess ary. A wall thickness allowance for corrosion is not required if pipe and components downolad protected against corrosion in acco rdance with the requirements and procedures prescribed in Chapter VIII. An allowance for thread or groove depth in inches millimeters shall be included in A of the equatio n in para.
The maximum value of SL for restrained pipe as,e calculated in accordance with para. NOTES: 1 Beam-bending stresses shall be included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the restrained or unrestrained line that are supported downolad. See para. When a pipeline may experience a noncyclic frer of its support such as fault movement along the pipeline route or differential support settlement or subsidence along the pipelinethe longitudinal and combined stress limits may be replaced with an allowab le strain limit, so long as the consequences of yielding do not impair the servicea b i l i ty o downlod th e i n s ta l l e d p i p e download i freee e.
T h e p e rm i s s i b l e free longitudinal strain depends on the ductility o f th e mate rial, any p re vi o us ly exp e rie nce d p las ti pdf strain, and the buckling behavior of the pipe. Where plastic strains are anticipated, the pipe eccentricity, pipe out-of-ro undness, and the ability of the weld to undergo such strains without detrimental effect shall be considered.
The maximum longitudinal stress due to axial and bending loads during installatio n and operation shall be limited to a value that prevents pipe buckling or otherwise impairs the serviceability of the installed pipeline. Other stresses resulting from pipeline installation activities such as spans shall be limited to the same criteria. Instead of a stress criterion, an allowable installation strain limit may be used.
B31 3 Pdf 1 4-PDF Free Download
Stress feee for steel pipe during operation shall not exceed the allowable values in Table Slurry pipe systems require additional consideratio ns. Refer to Chapter XI. For unrestrained pipelines, the allow- Transient overpressure includes pressure rise due to surge. Surge pressures in a liquid pipeline are produced by a change in the velocity of the moving fluid that results from shutting down a pump station or pumping unit, closing a valve, or blockage of the moving fluid.
Design, installation, and operating procedures s hall cons ider the effe ct o dkwnload exte rnal p res sure; bending, axial, and torsional loads; impact; mill tolerances in the wall thicknes s; out-of-roundness; and other applicable factors. Consideratio ftee shall also be given to mitigati o n o f p ro p agati o n b uckl i ng th at m ay fo ll o w lo cal buckling or denting.
Asme b31 4 free download pdf - moveweight.co
The pipe wall thickness shall be selected to resist collapse due to external pressure. Operational design current conditions shall be based on an event having a minimum return interval of not less than yr. The pipeline shall be designed, installed, and operated to limit stress fluctuatio ns to magnitudes and frequencies that will not impair the serviceability ofthe pipeline.
Loads that may cause fatigue include internal pressure variations, 2012and vibrations induced by vortex shedd i n g. When vibrations must be tolerated, the resulting stresses due to vibration shall be included in allowable stresses listed in para. If alternative acceptance standards for girth welds in API are used, the cyclic stress analysis shall include the determination of a predicted fatigue spectrum to which the pipeline is exposed over its design life.
T h e s ub m e rge d weight o f the p ip e s hall b e de s igned to resist or limit movement 2012 amounts that do not cause the longitudinal and combined stresses to exceed the lim its s p e cifi e d in Tab le 40 3. Current directio n shall be considered. The pipeline and its appurtenances may be buried to enhance stability. Backfill or other protective covering options shall use materials and procedures that minimize damage to the pipeline and coatings. Ancho ring may be used alone or in conj unctio n with other options to maintain stability.
The anchors shall b e de s ign e d to wi ths tand late ral and ve rti cal lo ads expected from the design wave and current conditions. Anchors shall be spaced download prevent excessive stresses in the pipe. Scour shall be considered in the design of the ancho ring s ys te m. The e ffe ct o f ancho rs b31 n the cathodic protectio n system shall be considered. Intermittent block type, clamp-on, or set-on weights river weights shall not be used on pipelines where there is a potential free the weight to become unsupported because of scour.
Design against loss of in-place stability shall be free acco rdance with the provisions of para. If the pipeline is to be trenched, it shall be designed for stability during the period prior to trenching. Pipeline design for lateral and vertical on-bottom stability is governed by permane nt features such as to pography and so il characteristics and by transient events such as hydro dynamic, seismic, asme soil behavio r events that are likely to occur during the anticip ated service life.
Design conditions to be considered are provided in paras. Pip e in the s ho re approach zone shall be installed on a suitable abovewater structure or buried or bored to the depth necess ary to prevent scouring, spanning, or stability problems that may affect integrity and safe operatio n of the pipeline during its anticip ated service life. Brittle fracture propagation shall be prevented by selectio n of a pipe steel that fractures in a ductile manner at operating temperatures.
Slope failure shall be considered in zones where it is expected muds lides, steep slopes, areas of seismic slumping. If it is not practical to design the pipeline system to survive the event, the pipeline shall be designed for contro lled breakaway with provisions to minimize loss of the pipeline contents. Design for the effects of liquefaction shall be performed for areas of known or expected occurrence.
Soil liquefaction normally results from cyclic wave overpressures or seismic loading of susceptible soils. The bulk specific gravity of the pipeline shall be selected, or alternative methods shall b e selected to ens ure both ho rizontal and vertical stability. Seismic design conditio ns used to predict the occurrence of bottom liquefaction or slope failure shall be at least as severe as those used for the operating design stre ngth calculations fo r the pipeline.
O ccurrence of soil liquefaction due to hydro static overpressures shall be based on a minimum storm return interval of not less than yr. Design consideratio n shall include pipe d i am e te r, wal l th i ckn e s sfractu re to u gh ne s syi e ld strength, operating pressure, operating temperature, and the decompression characte ristics of the pipeline contents. Crossing of water, railroads, roads, fo reign pipelines, and utilities requires variations in basic pipeline design.
The location of buried pipelines, utility lines, and other undergro und structures along and crossing the proposed asme of way shall be determined and considered in the design. Design pdf crossings o f rive rss tre am slake sand i nland b o di e s o f water shall include investigation of the composition of bottom download underlying layers, pdf n in banks, velocity of water, scouring, and special seasonal conditions.
Where required, b31 plans and specifications shall be prepared, taking into account these and any special considerations or limitatio ns imposed by the regulato ry bodies involved. Plans and specificatio ns shall describe the position of the line showing the depth below mean low water level when applicable.
Thicker wall pipe may be specified. Approach and position of the line in the banks is important, as is the position of the line across the bottom. Special considerations shall be given to depth of cover and other means of protecting the pipeline in the shore and bank crossings. Special consideratio n shall be given to protective fred and the use of weight coating, river weights, and ancho rs.
When a pipeline is to be laid across a known fault zone or in an earthquakeprone area, consideratio n shall be given to the need for flexibility in the frew and its components to minimize the possibility of damage due to an earthquake. Flexibility in the pipeline may be provided by installation of the pipeline on or above the ground level or by use of breakaway coupling, slack loops, flexible downloaad sections, or other sitespecific solutions. Breakaway couplings shall be designed to prevent loss of the transported fluid in the event of a separation of the coupling.
The pipe—soil interaction factors that are used shall be representative of the soil conditions at the site and pipe coating. Prevention of fractures during installation and operation shall be considered in material selection in accordance with the requirements of section Welding procedures and weld defect acceptance criteria shall consider the need to prevent v31 during installation and operation.
B - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids & Slurries - ASME
S p ecific consideration shall be given to stresses and dynamic loads associated with the installation of directionally drilled crossings, including axial loading, yielding, buckling, bending, and other dynamic loads or a combinatio n of these loads. Calculated stresses in the pipe and attachments shall not exceed the allowable limits identified in Table Designs shall include selectio n of the locatio n of entry and exit points download the proposed installatio n, clearances at points of crossing of other undergro und facilities, and The probability of brittle and ductile propagating fractures shall be considered in the design of pipelines transporting liquids that become gases at or near atmospheric conditions.
Protection shall be provided to free the occurre nce and the length of fractures throughout the pipeline with special co ns ideratio n at indus trial are asre s ide nti al areas22 ASME B3 1. I n fi nal iz ing th e p ro p o s e d p ip e l ine ro uti ng, e ach operator shall a asme a site survey to identify 2012, utilities, cables, and other nearby subsurface structures that may potentially be affected by the drilling and pdf operations b co n tact an d co m m un i cate wi th o th e r faci li ty owners identified in a c physically locate and mark all nearb y or parallel pipelines, utilities, cables, and other undergro und structures within ft 3 0 m of the drilling operation d analyze the accuracy of the metho d specified for tracking the position of the pilot string during drilling, including the effect on the tracki ng system of parallel power or communicatio n lines above- or belowground and cathodic protection systems operating in the vicinity e conduct soil borings and geotechnical evaluations if subsurface conditio ns are unknown in Table Installation of uncased carrier pipe is preferred.
Installation of carrier, or casing if used, may be in accordance with API RP or other appropriate standard. If casing is used, coated carrier pipe shall be independently supported outside each end of the casing and insulated from the casing throughout the cased section, and casing ends shall be sealed using a durable, electrically nonconductive material.
Pipeline crossings should be designed to provide a minimum in. Soil settlement, scour, and cyclical loads shall be considered in the design of pipeline crossings in order to ensure that the separation is maintained for the design life of both lines. Consideratio n shall be given to the s upp o rt o f o ther p ip elines and utilities during and following construction. Overhead suspended bridges or other overhead structure s used to suspend pipelines shall be designed and constructed within the re s tri cti o n s o r re gu l ati o n s o f th e re gu l ato ry b o d y having j urisdiction.
Suspension bridges, prefabricated steel bridges, reinforced concrete bridges, and self-spanning pipe bridges may be used. Stresses produced b31 the pipe weight, enviro nmental loads, and other predictable loads shall not exceed the maximum stresses allowed by this C ode. D etailed plans and s pecificatio ns s hall be prepared where required.
Design of overhead crossings using b31 dedicated bridge with self-supporting spans that are specially designed for the pipeline crossing shall consider the following: a pipe and content weight b external loads such as wind, snow, and ice c flooding d thermal stresses e electrical isolation of pipeline from supporting steel structure to prevent interference with pipeline cathodic protectio n f atmosp heric corrosion contro l Pipelines shall be designed to have sufficient flexibility to prevent expansion or contractio n from causing stresses in the pipe material or pipeline components that exceed the allowables specified herein, including joints, connectio ns, anchor points, or guide points.
NOTE: Allowable forces and moments on equip ment may be less than for the download pipe. In addition to structural support concernsthe differential movement between the bridge and pipeline due to thermal stresses and external loads shall be considered in the design of the pipeline crossing. In additio n to the design considerations listed in para. Any pipeline not meeting the requirements given above 2012 be analyzed by a simplified, approximate, or comprehensive metho d as appropriate.
The effects of all parts of th e p i p asme l i n e an d co m p o n e nts and o f all re s trai n tsincluding friction, shall be accounted for. Stresses due to internal design pressure and external load in pipe installed under railro ads or highways without use of casing shall not exceed the allowable stresses specified Buried pipelines are considered restrained. Safe operation of a buried pipeline is predicated on the assumption that the pipeline is maintained in its position in the ground through support of the soil below and on the sides.
The pipeline must also be p ro vided wi th p ro p er s o il co ve r to p ro hib it it fro m rising out of the ground at over bends. The buoyancy effects on a submerged pipeline shall be considered in its stability. At the ends of a buried pipeline, thermal and pressure forces may caus e significant longitudinal movement of the pipe, as the soil is normally unable to provide the restraint to pdf movement. Buried sections ofpipe that are not fully restrained, such as in a pump station, will move through the soil and should be analyzed for overstressing by reactio n with the soil.
Steel materials of unknown specifications may be used for structu ral supports and restraints, provided a yield strength of 24, psi 1 65 MPa or less is used. When steel butt welding fittings see paras. The nonmetallic trim, packing, seals, and gaskets shall be made of materials that are n o t i n j u ri o u s l y affe cte d b y th e fl u i d i n th e p i p i n g system and shall be capable of withstanding the pressures and temperatures to which they will be subj ected in service.
Consideratio n shall be given to possible conditions free may cause low temperatures on pipelines transporting liquids that become gases at or near atmos pheric conditions.
[PDF] ASME B - Free Download PDF
Restrained aboveground pipelines should be anchored so that longitudinal exp ansion or contraction due to thermal and pressure changes is absorb ed by direct axial compression or 2012. Consideration shall also b e gi ve n to asem e am b e n d i n g s tre s s an d th e p o s s i b l e elastic instab ility of the pipe and its supports due to longitudinal co mp asmee s ive fo rces. The s up p o rts s hall b e designed to provide the stiffness necessary to prevent download buckling.
The piping component at any point in the pipeline system shall be designed for an internal design downloae that shall not be less than the maximum steady-state operating pressure at that p o i nt, o r les s th an the s tati c download ad p re s s ure at that point with the line in a static condition. The maximum steady- state operating pressure shall be the sum of the static head pressure, pressure required to overco me friction losses, and any required back pressure. Credit may be given for hydro static external pressure, in the appropriate manner, in modifying the internal design pressure for use in calculations b31 the pressure design of piping co mp o nents.
Provision shall be made in the design either to withstand b31 to relieve increased pressure caused by the heating of static fluid in a piping component. The piping component shall be designed to withstand the maximum possible differential between external and inte rnal p re s s ure s to which th e co mp o ne nt wi ll b pd exposed. Bends shall be free fro m buckling, cracks, or other evidence of mechanical damage.
Ripples or wrinkles meeting the requirements of para. The minimum radius of field cold bends, except as noted in the next two paragrap hs, shall be as follows: The pressure rise due to surges see para. When two lines that operate at different pressure conditions are connected, the valve segregating free two lines shall be rated for the more severe service xsme.
When a line is connected to a piece of equipment that operates at a higher download conditio n than that of the line, the valve segregating the line from the equipment shall be rated for at least the operating condition of the equipment. The piping between the more severe conditio ns and the valve shall be designed to withstand the operating conditions of the equipment or piping to which it is connected. Bends may be made by bending n31 pipe in sizes NPS 14 and larger to a minimum radius of 18 D.
However, bending pipe to radii appro aching 1 8 D shall comply with the criteria in this paragrap h and will b e dependent downllad n wall thickness, ductility, ratio of pipe diamete r to wall thicknes s, use of bending mandrel, and skill of bending crew. Test bends shall be made to determine that the field bending procedure used produces bends meeting the requirements of this paragrap h and that the wall thickness after bending is pdr less than the minimum permitted by the pipe specification.
Cold bends should have tangents on each end in accordance with para. Fittings exceeding scope of standard sizes or otherwis e d e p arti ng fro m di m e ns i o ns li s te d i n th e s asme ard s referred to in paras. C as t, forged, wrought, or welded steel fittings different from those specified in the applicable American National Standards and M SS Standard Practices downlpad be permitted, p ro vi d e d th a t th e i r d e s i gn i s i n a c c o rd a n c e wi th para.
Induction bends are made by heating the pipe and forming the bend under contro lled pdff. The minimum wall thicknes s of pipe before bending pdc be determined as for straight pipe in accordance with para. When hot bends are made in pipe that has been cold worked in order to meet the specified minimum yield strength, wall thickness shall be determined by using the lower stress values in accordance with para.
Changes in directio n, vertically pdf horizontally, may bb31 made by field bending the free, by inserting induction free also called hot bendsor by installing manufactured bends or elbows. The minimum wall thicknes s of pipe before bending, field bends, or inducti on bends shall be determine d as for straight pipe in accordance with para. Field b ends are co ld b endsgene rally m ade i n th e fi e ld duri ng co ns 2012 o n, to allow the pipe to conform to the contour of the ditch.
Field bends include vertical asm sags and overbends Deflections caused by misalignment asem to 3 deg are not considered miter bends. Care shall be taken in making mitered down,oad to provide proper spacing and alignment and full-penetration welds. Pres s ure and temperature 20012 shall be based on the same stress values as were used in establishing the pressure and temperature limitatio ns fo r pipe o f the same or equivalent material.
The minimum asme thickness of flanged or threaded tees and crosses shall not be less than specified for the pressures and temperatures in the applicable ASME Standard asmr the MSS Standard Practice. An extrude d outlet header is The m i n i m u m m e ta l th i c kn e s s o f fl a n ge d o r th re a d e d elbows shall dowload be less than specified for the pressures and temperatures in the applicable ASME Standard or the MSS Standard Practice. Facto ry-made bends and elbows shall have approximately the same mechanical properties and chemical composition as the pipe to which they are welded.
Transverse segments cut from factory-made wrought steel welding bends and facto b311 elbows may be used for changes in directio n, provided the arc distance measured along the crotch is at least 2 in. If factory- made elbows are used in cross-country lines, care shall be taken to allow for passage of in-line inspection tools. See Figure These rules do not apply to any nozzle in which additional nonintegral material is applied in the form of rings, pads, or saddles.
These rules apply dree to cases where the axis of the outlet intersects and is perpendicular to the axis of the header. Free notation used herein is illustrated in Figure All dimens ions are in inches millimeters. This must be equal to or greater than roexcep t as shown in ro download. This is subj ect to the following limitatio ns: a Minimum radius shall not be less than 0.
Wrinkle bends shall not be used. Branch connectio ns may be made by bb31 of tees, 212, integrally reinforced extrud ed o utlet headerso r we lded co nnectio nsand s hall b e designed in accordance with the requirements of this paragrap h. Steel butt welding tees and crosses may be used for all ratios of branch diameter to header diameter and all ratios of design hoop stress to s p e ci fi e d m i n i m u m yi e l d s tre n gth o f th e ad j o i n i n g header and branch pipe, provided they comply with 26 ASME B The requirements outlined in para.
Welded branch co nnectio downpoad s hall b e as sho wn in Figures 40 4. D e s i g pdf s h a l l m e e t th e minimum requirements listed in Table Where reinforcement is required, e and f shall apply. Wh e n s uch te escro s s e so r headers are no t us ed, the reinfo rcing memb er s hall exte nd co mp lete ly aro und the circumfe re nce o f the header see Figure If the encircling member is thicker than the header and b31 ends are to be welded to the header, the ends shall be chamfered at approximately 45 deg down to a thickness not ldf excess of the downllad thicknessand continuous fillet welds shall be made.
Pads, partial saddles, or other types of localized reinforcements are prohibited. Where attached to the header by fillet welding, the edges of the reinforcement memb er shall be chamfered at approximately 45 deg down to pdf thickness not in exces s of the amse thickness. Pdd ntegrally reinfo rced frre outlet headers may be used for all ratios of branch diameter to header diameter and all ratios of design hoop stress to specified minimum yield strength of the j oining header and branch pipe, provided downkoad comply with this asme h.
When the design meets the limitations on geometry contained herein, the rules established are valid and meet the intent ofthe Code. These rules cover minimum requirements and are selected to ensure satisfacto ry performance of extruded headers subj adme to pressure. Extruded headers shall be designed to withstand forces and moments applied to the branch by thermal expansion and contraction; by vibratio n; by deadweight of piping, valves, fittings b31, covering, and contents; and by earth settlement.
The area lying within the reinforcement zone resulting from any excess thickness available in dowlnoad header wall, i. The area lying within the reinforcement zone resulting from any excess thickness available in the branch pipe wall, i. The area lying within the reinforcement zone resulting fro m excess thickness available in the extruded outlet lip, i. N o credit s hall b e taken fo r the additional strength of material having a higher strength than that of the part to be reinforced.
Vent holes shall be plugged during service to prevent crevice corrosion between pipe and asme member, but no plugging material shall be used that would be capable of sustaining pressure within the crevice. This does not pro hibit the use of ribs or gussets fo r purposes other than reinforcement, such as stiffening. The use of concave fillet welds is preferred to minimize corner wrought steel tee or cross of proven design or extruded header may be used.
The constructio n shall take cognizance of the stresses in the pdf pipe wall due to the opening in the pipe or header, the shear stresses produced by the pressure acting on the area of the branch opening, and any external loading due to thermal movement, weight, vibration, etc. The following paragrap hs provide design free based on the stress intens ification created by the existence of a hole in an otherwis e symmetrical s e c ti o n.
E x te r n a l l o a d i n g ss u c h a s th o s e d u e to thermal expansion or unsup ported weight of connecting pipe, have not been evaluated. These factors should be given attentio n in unusual designs or under conditions of cyclic loading. When pipe that has been cold worked to meet the specified minimum yield strength is used as a header containing single or multip le welded branch connections, stresses shall be in accordance with para.
F downlosd r we downoad d e d p i p edpwnload h e n th e branch does not inters ect the longitudinal or helical seam weld of the header, the allowable stress value fo r seamless pipe of comparable grade may b e us ed in dete rmining t fo r the p u rp o s e o f re i nfo rce m e nt cal culati o ns o nl y. When the branch does intersect the longitudinal or helical seam weld of the 2012, dree allowable stress value, S, of the header shall be used in the calculatio n.
The allowable stress xownload, S, of the branch shall be used in calculating t. Not required for tee type. Table Ring or saddle reinforcement shall be attached as shown by Ame If the reinforcing memb er is thicker at its edge than the header, the edge s hall b e chamfe red at ap p ro ximate ly 45 deg do wn dowmload a th ickn e s s s o le g dim e ns io ns o f th e fi lle t weld shall be within the minimum and maximum dimensions specified in Figure Branch connectio ns attached at an angle less than 90 deg to the header become progressively weaker as the angle decreas es.
Any such design shall be given individual study, and sufficient reinforcement shall be provided to compensate for the inherent weakness of such construction. The use of encircling ribs to support the flat or reentering surfaces is permissible and may be included in the aeme consideratio ns. The designer is cautio ned that s tre s s co ncentrati o ns ne ar th e ends o f p arti al rib sstraps, or gussets may defeat their reinforcing value, and their use is not recommended.
When two or more adj acent branches are spaced 2012 less than 2 times their average diameter so that their effective areas of reinforcement overlapthe group of openings shall dowbload reinforced in accordance with para. The reinforcing metal shall be added as a combined dkwnload, the strength of which shall equal the combined strengths of the reinforcements that would be required for the separate openings.
In no case shall any portion of a cross section be considered to apply to more than one opening, or be evaluated more than once in a combined area. I t is permiss ib le to free ide tap er b o re the hubs o n we lding neck flange s having dimens io ns co mp lyi ng with ASME B1 6. It is recommended that ame taper shall not be more abrupt than a ratio of Where conditions require the use of flanges other than tho s e co ve red in p ara.
When download that has been cold worked to meet the specified minimum yield strength is used as a header containing single or multip le welded branch connectio ns, stresses shall be in accordance with para. Any number of closely spaced adj acent openings, in any arrangement, may 2012 reinforced as if the group were one assumed opening of a diameter enclosing all such openings. The design of flanges manufactured in accordance with pf. The materials for these rings shall be frre for the service conditions encountered and shall be softer than the flanges.
Welding neck, slip-on, threaded, and lapped companion flangesreducing rownloadblind flangesand pdt cast or forged integral with pipe, fittings, dosnload valvesconforming to ASME B The bore of we lding neck flanges s hall co rres p o nd to the inside diameter of the pipe with awme they dosnload to be used. Special gaskets, including insulating gaskets, may be used, provided they are suitab le for the temperatures, pressures, fluids, and other conditions to which they may be subj ected.
Cast iron flanges are prohibited, excep t those that Slipon flanges of rectangular cross section may be used, provided they are designed so that flange thickness is increased to provide strength equal to that of the corresponding hubbed slip-on flange covered by ASME B When bolting Class 1 5 0 steel flanges to Class 1 2 5 pdf iron flangesheat asme carbon steel or alloy steel 2021 ASTM A1 93 may be used only pdr both flanges are fl at face and dowmload e gas ke t is fu ll face ; o th e rwis e, th e b o l ti n g s h al l h ave a m axi m u m te n s i l e s tre n gth n o greater than the maximum frfe stre ngth of AS TM A3 downlowd Grade B.
Good practice indicates that the flange should be flat faced.ASME B Click the start the download. DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Login. Register. Search. Search. About Us We believe everything in the internet must be free. So this tool was designed for free download documents from the internet. Legal . LANL Engineering Standards Manual PD Chapter 17 Pressure Safety Section DBG, ASME B Process Piping Guide Rev. 2, 3/10/09 4 The Owner and Designer are responsible for compliance with the personnel and process qualification requirements of the codes and standards. In particular, the application of ASME B requires compliance with the Inspector qualification. The materials standards Table 42 and references were revised and updated. The edition was approved by ANSI on September 14, , and designated as ASME B The edition of ASME B contained a revised scope and a new chapter to incorporate the requirements from ASME B, Slurry Transp ortation Piping Systems.
Special facings are permissible, provided they are cap ab le o f wi th s tanding the s ame te s ts as tho s e in AS M E B 1 6. See p ara. For flanges designed in acco rdance with para. Gaskets azme be made of materials that are no t inj uriously affe cted by the fluid in the piping system, and shall be capable of withstanding the pressures and temperature s to which they will be subjected in service.
These valves may contain certain cast, malleable, or wrought iron parts as ffee for in API 6D. Cast iron valves conforming to standards and specifications listed in Tables Care shall be exercis fdee to prevent excessive mechanical loading qsme para. Where resilient, rubber-like, or plastic materi als are used for sealing, they shall be capable of withstanding the fluid, pressure, and temperature specified for the piping system. The asme of metal or metal jacketed gasket either plain or corrugated is not limited excep t as provided in the preceding sentence as to pressure, provided that the gasket download is suitab le for the service temperature.
Special valves not listed in Tables The maximum 2012 stresses for materials used in these closure heads shall downllad established under the provisions of para. Closure heads shall have pressure and temp erature ratings equal to or in excess o f the requirements o f para. Reductions in line size may be made by the use of smoothly contoured pdf manufactured in accordance with ASME B Reducer fittings shall have pressure— temperature ratings based on the same stress values as were used in establishing the pressure—temperature limitations for pipe of the same or equivalent material.
Where appropriate, changes in diameter may be accomplished by reducing elbows, reducing outlet tees, or valves. Fishtails and flat closures are permitted for NPS 3 and smaller, operating at less than psi 7 bar. Fishtails and flat closures on pipe larger than NPS 3 are prohibited. Fabricated reducers s hall co nfo rm to th e re quire m e nts o f p ara. S eam we lds o b31 fab ricate d reducers s hall b e vis ually inspected and inspected by radiograp hy or ultrasonic shear wave techniques.
Bolted blind flange closures shall conform to para. B utt welded j oints shall be in accordance with Chapter V. Seam welds shall be visually inspected. Flanged j oints 2012 201 the requirements of para. All asje pipe threads on piping components shall be taper pipe threads. All internal pipe threads on piping components shall be taper pipe threads, excep t for sizes NPS 2 and smaller with design gage press ures no t exceeding 1 5 0 psi 1 0 b arin which case straight threads may be used.
It is not the gree of this Code to impose the requirements of a specific design method o n the designer o r manufacturer of a download o pening closure. Quick-o pening closures used for pressure containment under this Code shall have pressure and temperature ratings equal to or in excess of the design requirements of the pipeline system to which they are attached see paras. We ld end preparation shall be in accordance with para.
Steel connecto rs and swivels complying with API 6H may be used. S l e e veco u p l e dand o th e r p ate n te d joints may be used, provided a a production joint has been subject to proof tests to asme the safety of the joints under simulated service conditions. When vibratio n, fatigue, cyclic conditio ns, low temperature, thermal expansion, or other severe conditions are anticip ated, the applicable conditions shall be incorporated in the tests. Closure heads such as flat, ellipsoidal other than in para.
Reuse of pipe is covered by para. However, such components and equipment shall be cleaned, examined, and free, if necessary, to ensure that they meet all requirements for the intended service and are free of defects. In b31 n, reuse free be contingent on identification of the specification under which the item was originally produced. Where the specificatio n canno t be identified, use shall be prohibited. S up p o rts s hall b e des ign ed to support the pipe without causing excessive local stresses in the pipe and without imposing excessive axial or lateral friction pdf that might prevent the desired freedom of movement.
B races and damping devices may occasio nally be required to prevent vibration of piping. All attachments to the pipe shall be designed to minimize the added stresses in the pipe wall because of the attachment.View ASME Bpdf from INGENIERIA at University Esan. ASME B (Revision of ASME B) Pipeline Transportation Systems for . View ASME Bpdf from INGENIERIA at University Esan. ASME B (Revision of ASME B) Pipeline Transportation Systems for . asme-bprocess-piping-guide-free-pdf-download 1/1 Downloaded from moveweight.co on October 20, by guest [PDF] Asme B31 3 Process Piping Guide Free Pdf Download When somebody should go to the ebook stores, search instigation by shop, shelf by shelf, it is in point of fact problematic.
Nonintegral attachments, such as pipe clamps and ring girders, are preferred where they will fulfill the supporting or ancho ring functio ns. External and internal attachme nts to piping shall be designed so they will not cause flattening of the pipe, e xc e s s i ve l o c a l i z e d b e n d i n g s pvf e s s frde so r h a r m fu l thermal gradients in the pipe wall. All instrument and o ther auxiliary p ip ing co nnecte d to primary piping and that operates at a gage pressure exceeding 1 5 psi 2012 bar shall be constructed in accordance with the provisio ns of this Free. Pressure disposal or relief piping between pressure origin point and relief device shall be in diwnload with this Pdf. An isolation valve capable of full design flow relief may be installed between the origin point and relief device, p ro vi de d s uch valve can b e lo cke d o r s ealed in the open position.
Dowhload isposal piping fro m the relief device shall be doenload to a proper disposal facility, which may be a flare stack, suitable pit, sump, or download. This disposal piping shall have no valve between the relief device and the disposal facility unless such valve can be locked or sealed in the open position. Pressure-containing components that are not covered by the standards listed in Table Interpolation may be made betwe en b331 asme s haped proved compo b31 with small diffe rences in s ize o r propo rtio n.